Cells are the smallest living structures in nature, therefore, it is the basic unit of all living beings. From them are formed all the vital functions of the organisms, that is, reproduction, nutrition, metabolism and other functions. These processes occur through the intervention of cell organelles, present in the cell cytoplasm.
The current cell theory
Previously, it was believed that the cell was an accumulation of protoplasm formed by a nucleus and a membrane. With advances in biology it was observed that the nucleus also had a specific membrane. From the point of view of biology this means that every living cell comes from another cell, because every living thing is a cell or is formed by them.
The function of cell organelles
Thanks to the improvement of the microscope, it is possible to observe the cell structure in its entirety and, thus, the cell organelles are identified. Currently, it is known that all cells, regardless of their size and structure, depend on cell organelles for their survival.
All cell organelles must function harmonically, regulated and controlled by the DNA of the cell nucleus, from where they receive indications through messages carried by the messenger RNA that goes to the cell organelles.
The most common cell organelles are the ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, the mitochondria and the chloroplasts of plant cells. Each of these organelles perform specific functions, such as the production of insulin, bile, proteins or energy transmission functions .
Among the cell organelles are mitochondria, a cellular structure that fulfills essential metabolic reactions. Mitochondria are the energy source that provides the impetus to build other cells and another living being.
However, the functioning of mitochondria has a paradoxical component: the oxygen that the cell receives is vital, but in turn this same oxygen produces cell corrosion and wear. Mitochondria transform energy through oxygen, but some of the oxygen degrades into particles, also known as free radicals, which means that the energy produces further deterioration.