All living things are made up of cells. Their sizes and functions may differ, but they all share the presence of three structures: a membrane, the cytoplasm, and the genetic material found in the nucleus. The membrane is a layer that surrounds the cell , protecting the external environment and allows the function of nutrition . Cell Cycle
Cytoplasm is a substance found between the membrane and the nucleus. That’s where all the organelles are found. The nucleus is the most important organ because it regulates the function of cells and is also the center where the genetic material transmitted from one being to another is found.
The cells of an organism have a life cycle that has several stages. Each step has a specific function.
Stages of development of a cell
There are stages g, also called stages of growth (the letter g is used because it comes from the English grown, which more precisely means growth). During this period or stage, the cell grows in relation to the number of organs and thus prepares itself with the arrival of the moment of cell division (during this phase, protein synthesis occurs). On the other hand, the cell grows increasing its volume. In this phase, DNA duplication occurs, which is the most specific of the synthesis phase. When the cell is ready, the mitosis or meiosis phase occurs according to the cell type. It should be noted that some types of cells do not divide in the same way that neurons in the brain do . Cell Cycle
Cell cycle regulation
If conditions are optimal, some eukaryotic cells can be split every 20 minutes. However, the frequency of cell division varies depending on species and tissues. Under perfect conditions of nutrition, temperature and pH, the duration of the eukaryotic cell cycle is constant for each type of cell. Note that there are certain regulatory molecules in all eukaryotes that control the cell cycle.
These regulatory molecules are found in all types of living organisms and thanks to them a sequence of specific events occurs within the cell cycle. They act as genetic programs and allow each phase of the cell’s development to be completed properly (for example, if a cell produces damaged DNA, the cell cycle is interrupted). Cell Cycle
Among the molecules involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, protein kinases, which are enzymes that activate other proteins by phosphorylation, which is the metabolic process that allow cellular respiration, stand out.