Human sexual reproduction, on some occasions, presents difficulties that prevent natural fertilization. There are several causes that can explain these difficulties: hardening of the membrane that covers a woman’s egg or a limited number of sperm in a man. This type of circumstance and its natural limitations make it necessary to resort to an artificial procedure: assisted reproduction, better known as artificial insemination.
The purpose of assisted reproduction can be defined, in a nutshell, to help human biology itself to manage to create a new life.
Assisted reproduction techniques
The double having difficulties with breeding may use two techniques of assisted reproduction: artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization.
Artificial insemination basically consists of advancing or opening pathways for sperm. This means that, instead of sperm reaching the cervix alone, they are introduced into the uterus, leaving them as close as possible to the fallopian tubes in order to make their normal route without difficulties, facilitating pregnancy of the woman. In this technique , the man’s sperm is previously collected and treated with a series of substances to optimize its success in fertilization.
In the final stage, sperm are introduced into a cannula and deposited inside the woman’s vagina through the cervix, where fertilization is expected to take place. In relation to artificial insemination, this is a process which is also carried out in some animal species, for example, to optimize certain race. Assisted Reproduction
In vitro fertilization is named after the union of the egg with the sperm outside the woman’s body.
This technique is based on obtaining more than one egg to increase the chances of fertilization, forcing the ovary to produce more than one egg through hormonal treatment.
When the ovary has enough hormones, its eggs are extracted. Subsequently, sperm are joined with the eggs in an incubator at a certain temperature , thus, the fertilized eggs are transformed into embryos. Once the embryos are obtained, they are introduced into the woman’s vagina awaiting pregnancy.