Definitions

Regulatory move definition/Main advantages/Who were the regulators

The Regulatory Movement, also called the War of Regulation, was an insurrection in the Anglo-American Colonies of North and South Carolina from about 1765 to 1771. In two separate movements – one in South Carolina and one in North Carolina – Armed settlers confronted colonial authorities over issues of excessive taxation and lack of defense and law enforcement. Since it primarily targeted British officials, some historians consider the Regulatory Movement a catalyst for the American Revolutionary War in 1775. Regulatory move definition

Main advantages: the regulating movement

  • The Regulatory Movement was a series of uprisings against excessive taxation and lack of law enforcement in the British colonies of North and South Carolina from 1765 to 1771.
  • In South Carolina, the Regulatory Movement protested the failure of British government officials to maintain law and order within the western border.
  • In the North Carolina Regulatory Movement, settlers in rural farming communities fought against unfair taxation and tax collection methods imposed by corrupt British officials.
  • While the South Carolina Regulatory Movement was successful, the North Carolina Regulatory Movement failed, with its members being defeated in the Battle of Alamance that ended the Regulation War.
  • Some historians consider the Regulatory Movement a catalyst for the American Revolution. Regulatory move definition

Who were the regulators?

During the early 1760s, the population of the British colonies of North Carolina and South Carolina grew rapidly as settlers from eastern cities migrated to the western frontier in hopes of finding new opportunities. Originally composed primarily of farmers in an agricultural economy, the influx of merchants and lawyers from the eastern colonies disrupted the Carolinas’ economic, political, and social systems. At the same time, Scottish and Irish immigrants populated the hinterland. The strains of rapid growth in a culturally diverse community inevitably led to friction between the colonists and British supervisory officers, many of whom had become corrupt and ruthless.

By the mid-1760s, this friction escalated into two separate uprisings of the Regulatory Movement, one in South Carolina and the other in North Carolina, each with a different set of causes.

South Carolina

In the South Carolina Regulatory Movement of 1767, colonists sought to restore law and order to the backlands and establish local government institutions controlled by colonists rather than British officials. Angered by the failure of local British authorities to protect the colony’s western border from wandering bandits, a group of large planters and small farmers organized the Association of Regulators to provide law enforcement in the hinterland. Sometimes, employing surveillance tactics, regulators rounded up outlaws and established local courts to try them and carry out punishment. Regulatory move definition

Seeing their problems being resolved for them at no cost to the Crown, the British governor and colonial assembly did not try to stop the movement. In 1768, order was largely restored, and in 1769, the South Carolina colonial legislature passed the Circuit Court Act, establishing six district courts to maintain law and order in the wilderness. After the British Parliament passed the law, South Carolina regulators parted ways.

North Caroline

The Regulatory Movement in western North Carolina was driven by very different issues and was violently opposed by Great Britain, resulting in the Regulation War.

A decade of drought has plunged the interior farming community into a severe economic depression. Crop losses robbed farmers of their main source of food and only means of income. Forced to buy food and supplies from newly arrived merchants from the eastern cities, the farmers soon ran into debt. With no personal ties to the farmers, the merchants were quick to take them to court to collect their debts. To the growing chagrin of farmers, local courts came to be controlled by “court circles” of wealthy British judges, lawyers and sheriffs who often conspired to confiscate farmers’ homes and land to settle their debts. Regulatory move definition

Conditions in North Carolina became more volatile in 1765, when King George III appointed British Army General William Tryon as governor. Tryon’s tax collectors, military officers, sheriffs, and judges worked together in relentlessly extorting excessive, often misjudged, taxes from country farmers.

On June 6, 1765, as the North Carolina chapter of the Sons of Liberty was protesting the British Stamp Act , George Sims, the Nutbush township planter, delivered the Nutbush Speech, in which he appealed to local residents to join him in protesting the actions of provincial and county officials. The Sims’ call to action led to the formation of the Regulatory Movement in North Carolina.

The Regulation War

Strongest in Orange, Anson and Granville counties, regulators began petitioning the provincial legislature to dismiss and replace its British-appointed court and government officials with local residents. When that failed, the Regulators publicly pledged to pay only legally levied taxes and to respect only the will of the majority. Now growing in popularity and influence, the Regulators gained control of the provincial legislature in 1769. However, with Governor Tryon against them, they failed to fulfill their aims. Frustrated at the political level, the Regulators’ determination to win the support of the people through public demonstrations grew even stronger. 

Peaceful at first, the regulators’ protests slowly grew more violent. In April 1768, a band of regulators fired several shots at the home of Edmund Fanning, governor, in Hillsborough County Tryon’s scorned personal attorney who, though convicted of extorting money from local residents, remained unpunished. Although Fanning was unharmed, the incident set the stage for the much more violent disturbances to come. Regulatory move definition

In September 1770, a large band of regulators armed with clubs and whips entered Hillsborough, broke up and vandalized the colonial courthouse, and dragged its officials through the streets. The mob continued to make their way through the city, destroying shops and public property. Upon arriving at Edmund Fanning’s estate, the mob looted and set fire to his home, severely beating him in the process.

Battle of Alamance Creek: ‘Fire and Be Damned!’

Outraged by the events in Hillsborough, Governor Tryon, with the approval of the Colonial Assembly, personally led his well-armed team and trained militia from the provincial capital of New Bern to the western outback with the intention of definitively ending the Regulator Movement.

Encamped along Alamance Creek, west of Hillsborough, on the morning of May 16, 1771, the Regulators made one last attempt to negotiate with Tryon. Secured by his military advantage, Tryon agreed to meet only if the Regulators dispersed and surrendered their weapons within the hour. After they refused, Tryon threatened to open fire on them unless they dispersed immediately. When the governor’s leader, James Hunter, responded to the famous line, “Shoot and be damned!” Tryon launched his successful attack in what became known as the Battle of Alamance. Regulatory move definition

In just two hours, Tryon’s 2,000 soldiers defeated the untrained and lightly armed Regulators. Taking cover behind rocks and trees, the Tuners removed their casualties from the battlefield promptly, allowing no documented counts of their losses. However, seven alleged Regulators were executed, while another six were pardoned by King George III as recommended by Tryon. Within weeks, nearly all the former regulators had sworn allegiance to the royal government in exchange for a full pardon.

the American revolution

To what extent the Regulatory Movement and the Regulatory War served as catalysts for the American Revolution remains a matter for debate.

Some historians argue that the Regulatory Movement predicted the coming independence movement’s resistance to British authority and unfair taxation in the Revolution. Several former governors were known to have fought for independence in the Revolution, while some of the governors’ opponents, such as Edmund Fanning, supported the British. Additionally, the fact that North Carolina Governor William Tryon continued to serve as a general in the British Army during the Revolution creates a connection between the War of Regulation and the American Revolutionary War. Regulatory move definition

Other historians suggest that not all regulators were anti-British patriots, but simply British loyalists seeking to reform corruption and excessive taxation in their local governments through civil disobedience acts.

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