Rationalism can be divided into different strands: the metaphysical strand , which finds a rational character in reality and indicates that the world is logically ordered and subject to laws; the epistemological or gnosiological aspect , which considers reason as the source of all true knowledge, independent of experience; and the ethical aspect , which emphasizes the relevance of rationality, respectively, to moral action.
The principles of reason that make knowledge and moral judgment possible are innate and converge in the capacity of human knowledge (” lumen naturale “).
The defense of reason and the preponderance of this philosophical current became the ideology of the French Enlightenment and, in the religious context, created a critical attitude towards revelation, which culminated in the defense of a natural religion. Rationalism definition
Christian rationalism consists of a spiritualist philosophy systematized by Luís de Matos and which emerged as a result of a separation from the Brazilian Spiritist movement. Followers of this doctrine claim that Christian rationalism is a science and not a religion, and aims to address the evolution of the human spirit, reaching conclusions about phenomena and matters such as reason and reasoning.
Rationalism and Empiricism
Unlike empiricism, rationalism accepts the existence of innate truths and ” a priori ” truths . I. Kant achieved a synthesis of rationalism and empiricism, by maintaining as a reference for all knowledge the given in experience and at the same time affirming the existence of ” a priori ” forms in the subject. Rationalism definition
As a philosophical current, rationalism was born with Descartes, and reached its peak in B. Espinoza, GW Leibniz and Ch. Wolff. Cartesian rationalism indicates that it is only possible to reach the knowledge of the Truth through the reason of the human being.
For Descartes, there were three categories of ideas: adventitious , factitious, and innate . Adventitias represent ideas that arise through data obtained by our senses; factitious are the ideas that originate in our imagination; and innate ideas, which do not depend on experience and are within us since we are born. According to Descartes, mathematical concepts and the notion of the existence of God were examples of innate ideas. Rationalism definition