Philology is the science that aims to study a language through written texts . Philology definition
In a broader context, philology is also concerned with the literature and culture of a particular people.
Initially, philology was limited to the study of ideas through textual criticism. However, this science progressed and began to be interested in history, institutions and cultural manifestations. This interest arose in order to obtain a broader knowledge of the classical world through the study of literary texts.
The earliest works on language and literature were done by grammarians from Alexandria and sophists from Athens, who were responsible for publishing reliable versions of literary works.
Aristophanes of Byzantium (who lived in the 3rd century BC) is considered by many authors as the forerunner of philology, as his methods were used by several other thinkers, such as his disciple Aristarchus. Philology definition
Classical or ancient philology is considered a branch of philosophy and studies literary elements from classical antiquity. This branch incorporates Greek and Latin philology.
Classical philology had its origins as a science in the Renaissance, and emerged thanks to an affinity with Greco-Latin culture.
Romance philology has as its object of study the transformations that occurred from Vulgar Latin into Romance languages, such as Portuguese and Spanish. Philology definition
In the 19th century, the methodology used by classical philology was applied in other languages, and as a consequence Romanesque, Germanic, Hispanic, etc. philology arose.
Philology and Linguistics
Philology and linguistics have the same object of study: language. However, these two sciences also present differences, because while linguistics focuses more on language in its practical aspect, philology focuses on the reconstruction of ancient literary texts. Philology definition