We live in an age in which everything is increasingly measured and standardized, so that we can optimize resources. Management sciences are a good example of this . In this article we are going to discover what they consist of, what characterizes them and what is their usefulness today in a whole series of very different areas. Management sciences definition
What are management sciences?
The science or science of administration, also called the science of management, is the study that is dedicated to trying to explain the forms of human organization related to the world of work , such as companies, but also to other administrative structures such as various types of associations and even much more extensive and complex networks such as local, regional, national or even supranational administrations (those that connect several countries).
Ultimately, the object of study of the management sciences are all the behaviors that human beings carry out in this type of structure . In this way, we will be able to know in a standardized way why a human system has been organized in a specific way, what are the characteristics of that choice and what are the advantages that it brings in contrast to other different models for which they could also have opted.
It is a scientific discipline, born from nothing less than applied mathematics itself, since initially the optimal system was sought, one in which, once the variables involved had been studied, the values that would allow maximum efficiency and maximum efficiency were obtained. therefore the best results using the minimum level of resources that was possible, and all this based on statistical decisions and therefore quantifiable.
Its origin is in the studies initiated for the investigation of operations, especially relevant in the period of World War II , since the best way was sought to create strategies that would guarantee a maximum use of resources, so limited in the war scenario. It was when mathematics came into play, as a way to objectify the procedures, seeking that efficiency through the numbers. Management sciences definition
But the administration sciences were growing and developing more and more, so that today it is possible to apply these studies to practically any form of human organization, with the aim of finding the most optimal way to carry out its management, be it the whatever it is. For this reason, we can find studies referring to the organization of a multinational company, a sports association, or the City Council of a municipality, since all of them are formations that can be analyzed.
When talking about management sciences, we must bear in mind that it allows us to carry out research at different levels, specifically three. Below we will make a description of each of them in order to establish a comparison and discover their differences.
The first level of investigation is the fundamental call, and it is the one that allows us to access the most basic data of the organization . These data are all those that can be quantified and treated through applied mathematics, and more specifically through three branches of this science, which are dynamic systems, optimized systems and probability. Thanks to these tools we can organize all the information and carry out a first level of analysis.
Once we have all the data available and ready to operate with them, we can move on to the second phase, which is the modeling phase. At this time, and being able to help ourselves with computer tools, we can create models that simulate different scenarios and thus be able to analyze and compare them, in search of the one that is most optimal for our organizational purposes. In contrast to the previous level, the branches of mathematics that have the most weight here would be statistics and by extension, econometrics. Management sciences definition
The last level, how could it be otherwise, would be the application itself. At this moment we go from the theoretical levels, which were the previous ones, and which have provided us with the necessary information to establish the lines of action, to the practice , which would be to carry out said model, in search of the results that we have anticipated , always based on data and mathematical processes, which are the basis for the validity of management sciences.
We have already seen that the management sciences have spread remarkably throughout a series of sectors, and in this process they have established links with numerous disciplines, from which they draw to generate their knowledge about the forms of management. We are going to mention some of the most notable ones.
1. Human Resources
Logically, Human Resources are the basis of any company. We cannot expect an organization to function properly if we do not have adequate management of its Human Resources, both to incorporate new members to the team, and to take care of all the issues related to those who already belong to it . That is why this branch could not be absent when we talked about the sciences of administration. Management sciences definition
Accounting is another discipline that provides great information about the organization of the company, and it is also purely numerical, so its relationship with applied mathematics, which was the origin of the management sciences, is more than evident. That is why we must take into account the data provided for the study of the organization .
Likewise, logistics is key to making decisions that optimize the procedures carried out within a company, so it will be key to take them into account to develop an adequate study regarding the way in which said company is managing itself in all its operations. levels.
Management sciences are also nourished by the study of finance, which, as with accounting, is a discipline based on figures and therefore quantitative, which facilitates the design of strategies in search of optimization and maximum results with the least expense.
We cannot understand today’s business organizations if we do not take into account all the issues related to marketing , which are what, to a large extent, allow a company to succeed or fail to take off, regardless of the product or service that we are offering. . Therefore, it is another of the fundamental pillars in our search for absolute knowledge about human organizations.
Entrepreneurship encompasses all issues related to the creation of new companies, and therefore includes a series of knowledge that is essential to complete the map that makes up the management sciences. It will help us understand the process of creating an organization from its origin as a small business to its development as a huge multinational company , if it completes that cycle. Management sciences definition
7. Business strategy
As with marketing, all business decisions regarding strategies to pursue can lead to the corporation following a successful course and achieving its objectives or having difficulty maintaining its position in the market. Therefore, all this body of knowledge must also be part of the management sciences.
8. Information systems
Information systems refer to all data interactions, in this case referring to the organization, which are put in common through a hardware and software system , in addition to the people who manage said equipment. Without this information network we could not conceive of the company itself, so it is another of the disciplines that we need to better understand this concept.
The companies’ own administration is already encompassing several of the sectors that we have been describing in the previous points, but its importance is so high that it deserves a separate mention. This compendium of tasks is another of the sources that make up all the accumulated knowledge in the management sciences.
Although some discipline related to business organization has not been mentioned in this list, it does not mean that it is not necessary for a better understanding of the concept we are studying, since they all contribute to a greater or lesser extent a series of data of great value to be able to face this study. Therefore, any other variable that affects the company should be considered, even if not mentioned here. Management sciences definition