Empiricism definition/Rationalism/innateness/Enlightenment/Criticism

Empiricism is a philosophical movement that believes in human experiences as solely responsible for the formation of existing ideas and concepts in the world. Empiricism definition

Empiricism is characterized by scientific knowledge, when wisdom is acquired by perceptions; by the origin of ideas, where things are perceived, regardless of their goals or meanings.

Empiricism consists of an epistemological theory that indicates that all knowledge is a result of experience, and therefore, a consequence of the senses. Experience establishes the value, origin and limits of knowledge.

The main theorist of empiricism was the English philosopher John Locke (1632 – 1704), who defended the idea that the human mind is a “blank sheet” or a “blank slate”, where external impressions are engraved. Therefore, it does not recognize the existence of innate ideas, nor of universal knowledge.

As a theory that opposes Rationalism, empiricism criticizes metaphysics and concepts such as cause and substance. In other words, the entire process of knowing, knowing and acting is learned through experience, trial and error. Empiricism definition

Etymologically, this term has a double origin. The word may have originated from Latin and also from a Greek expression, deriving from a more specific use, used to name physicians who have skills and knowledge of practical experiences and not theory instruction.

In addition to John Locke, there were several other prominent authors in the formation of the concept of empiricism, such as Francis Bacon, David Hume and John Stuart Mill.

Currently, logical empiricism is known as neo positivism , created by the Vienna circle. Within empiricism, there are three empirical lines: the integral, the moderate and the scientific.

In science, empiricism is used when we talk about the traditional scientific method, which originates from philosophical empiricism, which defends that scientific theories should be based on observation of the world, rather than on intuition or faith, as it was passed. Empiricism definition

Empiricism and Rationalism

Empiricism and Rationalism are two opposing philosophical currents.

Rationalism approaches the subject of knowledge from the exact sciences , while Empiricism gives more importance to experimental sciences.

According to Rationalism, knowledge is achieved by making good use of reason, and not the senses, because the information obtained through the senses can be wrong, because it is possible to have a mistake in what is heard or seen.

empiricism and innateness

Innatism is a current of philosophical thought that is totally opposite to that of Empiricism.

Innatism believes that knowledge is innate to human beings , that is, individuals are born with certain knowledge .

Throughout life, however, innatists believe that individuals must receive stimuli so that all existing knowledge can develop. Empiricism definition

Knowledge would be passed on from generation to generation through heredity.

Empiricism and Enlightenment

The Enlightenment, also known as the “Epoch of Enlightenment”, was a period of transformation in the social structure, mainly in Europe, where the themes revolved around Freedom, Progress and Man.

Unlike empiricism, the Enlightenment attached great importance to reason, always seeking to mobilize its power.

Empiricism and Criticism

Criticism is a philosophical current that indicates reason as essential to achieve knowledge, without the need to resort to the senses. Empiricism definition

Immanuel Kant, creator of Criticism, used this philosophy to bring a common point between empiricism and rationalism.

Kant states that sensitivity and understanding are two important faculties in obtaining knowledge, and the information captured by the senses will be shaped by reason.

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