Sociolinguistics

Diastratic variety characteristics and examples in detail

Diastratic variety of the language

Although the most common is the use of a standard language with which all speakers can communicate , the truth is that there is a diastratic variety that causes different levels or different ways in which the language is used . In other words, varieties of this type will have to do with the way in which each group of speakers makes use of it depending on the social group to which it belongs. Diastratic variety characteristics and examples

The language can present different varieties according to different criteria. In the case at hand, we are going to focus on the variety that occurs when we look at the speaker’s membership of a specific social or educational group . This variety is what represents, in the form of language, the social, economic and educational position of the person who is speaking. In addition to the aforementioned factors, the use of the different levels of the language will also depend on the age of the speakers or the profession, among others.

These diastratic varieties are also known as social dialects since they depend solely and exclusively on the way in which each speaker makes use of the language, taking into account their belonging to a specific social group.

The key factor to highlight within the diastratic variety of language is the cultural level of the speaker . Within our society we can distinguish different groups either by age or relationship. This will determine the level of language used. To be able to understand it more easily, imagine the following situation:

You are at the university and you must write a paper to deliver to your professor. This work must be correct in every way, so you must use the appropriate language and syntax so that it can be understood. Imagine now that this same work must be published in a scientific journal, in this case, the level of language, due to the scope of publication of the text, will be different. Diastratic variety characteristics and examples

Therefore and taking into account the above we can indicate that most of the languages  can be divided into three different levels or diastratic varieties :

  • Cultured level
  • Standard level
  • Vulgar level

Characteristics of the diastratic variety

In order for you to better understand this linguistic variety, below we are going to offer you a summary of the characteristics of diastratica and, thus, you will better understand this concept.

1-Characteristics of the cultured level

It is the highest level that exists and is related to a high cultural and educational level. It is often used by educated people and is used when we want to establish communication aimed at academic or scientific fields . Among its characteristics we can highlight:

  • Correction : it is a structured, rigid and precise use of language that seeks correction in all its areas, that is, in a lexical, morphosyntactic and phonetic way.
  • Language : it is precise and has a great linguistic variety. The lexicon used at the cultured level has a multitude of cultisms and rich synonyms that add value to the text.
  • Syntax : this level of the language seeks correction in a written way through complex structures in which different verb tenses are used with mastery. Long, complex and compound sentences are used in which different links and complements intervene. On the other hand, in its spoken facet, it seeks to establish a correct use of the pronunciation of each of the words.
  • Abstraction : they make a very abundant use of abstract-type concepts.
  • Invariable : it is a level very little in favor of changes. It is conservative and traditional in terms of its written and oral form.

2-Standard level features

It is the most widespread in all areas of society . In other words, standard EnglishE is the most widely used since it is at the intermediate level and makes use of the linguistic and grammar rules of the language, but a series of licenses are allowed that make it less rigid and traditional than worship. .

It is used in both written and oral communication and is used in different social and cultural settings, for example, this type of level will be used in the media or in education. Because it is less rigid, it is open to the inclusion of changes and variations brought about by use or by fashion.

3-Characteristics of the vulgar level

It is associated with a lower cultural and educational level . Its characteristics include the incorrect use of language in which there are a multitude of linguistic and grammatical errors. It has a very simple grammar and a language with little variety, in addition to being repetitive and with frequent use of vulgarisms.

Examples of diastratic variety

Next we are going to show you a series of examples of each of the varieties that we have shown you previously. In this way you can easily identify each of them and know how and when they are used:

  • Educated level : The analysis variables applied to the object of study of this research, make us consider the hypothesis that the subject is suspected of belonging to a currently unidentified subgroup.
  • Standard level : Last November the Government communicated, through a press conference, what will be its roadmap for the next legislature. Diastratic variety characteristics and examples
  • Vulgar level : My brother-in-law has not come, he tells me that his brother-in-law is at home.

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