To know exactly what derivation by suffixation is, we must first know what the derivation itself is actually . In this case, we define it as a method of creating new lexical elements by adding inseparable elements, that is, affixes, of words that already exist in the language, or by deleting a suffix. Derivation by suffixation with examples
In this sense, we must know that the derivation can be done by means of affixes , which are of various kinds, as we observe below:
- Prefixes , when they are placed at the beginning of the lexical base. For example, REread.
- Through infixes , when it is integrated between the base and the grammatical morpheme, as in the case of Flor-EC-er.
- Suffixes , which is the case that concerns us today, when we find them in the final part of the word, as students.
Derivation by suffixation, a productive method
The truth is that derivation by suffixation is the most productive method, since it is the one that allows a greater number of words to be created. In fact, according to many experts, infixes are rarely used, and prefixes are so versatile that they actually give rise to compound or derived words in many cases. Derivation by suffixation with examples
When we come across the case of derived words, we realize that we form semantic relationships that are known as word families . In this sense, we have to differentiate between several types of affixes:
- Derivative affixes . These are the ones that form new words. For example, “throw that paper on the floor” and “throw that trash can on the floor.” Both, ie “paper” and “trash”, are related by suffixation, but the meaning is totally different.
- Appreciative affixes . In this case, they do not create a new word, but express modification in the result. For example: “This young man is a thief” and “this young man is a petty thief.” We see that we find the same referent, but the nuance of the expression changes.
- Grammatical affixes . On the other hand, we have the latter, which do not cause radical changes, except in gender, time, number or degree. Let’s look at examples of cases such as “boy” and “girl”, “sang” and “will sing”, or “clock” and “clocks”.
The derivative affixes, the most used
Within the derivation by suffixation, without a doubt the derivative affixes are the most used. Without a doubt, they propose an enormous lexical richness, since any speaker creates new words from existing ones without practically thinking about it. For example, using terms as fashionable as “famous”, which comes from “fame”, and others such as “honorable” from “honor”, “appreciable” from “appreciation”, and so on.
In fact, through suffixation, new voices are still created today that not long ago did not exist, such as “creationism”, which comes from “creating”.
And is that the suffix can provide a large number of meanings and values for many ideas, such as the creation of actions that come from verbs, in the case of “bite” and “bite”, or making abstract nouns, such as “whiteness” of “White”. Derivation by suffixation with examples
Other examples of affixes in this case are diminutives and augmentatives, widely used when we speak, almost without realizing it:
- Old man or old man.
- Great body.