Constructivism is an artistic-political movement that emerged in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, which had as its principle the idea of art as part of people’s daily lives , eliminating the “superior soul” that it once had. Constructivism definition
Based on Cubism and Suprematism, allied to the ideals of the Socialist Revolution, Constructivism aims to combat elite art, radically democratizing art for the masses. She is considered by her followers as a “social trainer”, with the aim of organizing and instructing people’s lives, not just decorating.
Russian constructivists saw art, especially painting and sculpture, as products of construction of “new realities”, and not as representations of them. According to this concept, art served as a mechanism for revolution, an idea defended mainly by Vladimir Tatlin , one of the main representatives of Russian constructivism.
Cinema also had a very important role within the artistic-political discourse of Russian constructivism, at least for part of the avant-garde intellectuals of the time. Sergei Eisenstein is one of the most iconic names in cinema in this movement, and portrayed in his thematic films that were real and close to the real world and aimed at the masses, as in the films “ The Battleship Potemkim ” and “ The Strike ”, for example. Constructivism definition
Some of the main constructivist artists are: Naum Gabo, Sergein Eisenstein, Vladimir Tatlin, Alexandr Rodchenko, Ivan Leonidov, Konstantin Melnikov, among others.
The Russian Constructivist movement had its decline during the Writers’ Congress in 1934, when it was replaced by Socialist Realism , the only art form that was admitted to the USSR during Stalinism .
Even after its end, several remnants of Russian constructivism were perpetuated for other European vanguards, influencing even contemporary design.
Characteristics of Constructivist Art
In general, among the outstanding characteristics in the works of Russian constructivism, the following stand out: use of geometric elements, primary colors, typography and photomontage.
Among other particularities that helped to give shape to the Russian Constructivist style were its tendency towards design and architecture , the search for and use of engineering techniques in the works, the use of new materials, among other factors that are related, in particular, to the architectural innovation.
Constructivism in education
In the philosophical and pedagogical scope, constructivism consists of a theory of learning in which the individual (as a student) actively participates in their own learning , through epistemological experiences and constant interactions with the environment in which they are inserted. Constructivism definition
Developed from the studies of the Swiss epistemologist Jean Piaget (in the early 1920s) and the researches of the Belarusian literature professor Lev Vygotsky , this theory suggests greater flexibility in teaching, so that the student can learn from mistakes and successes , stimulating their capabilities from the constant interaction with the world around them.
Constructivism still advocates the use of self-assessment and reflection in subjects, eliminating the rigid and standardized model of student assessments. Constructivism definition