English Linguistics Terms/Glossary

Glossary of Grammar/Syntax Terms

Glossary of Grammar/Syntax Terms

Grammar is a set of rules that enables to understand the true meanings of the words used in the sentences or conversation…

Abbreviation Reduced graphic representation of a word or group of words: Mr ( Mr. ), St ( S (an), Sto., Sta. ).
Accent 1. Prosodic accent: Greater emphasis when pronouncing a certain syllable within a word or sentence . In the English word Panama, the accent falls on the first syllable . In phonetic transcriptions the accent mark (a small raised vertical line) precedes the syllable on which the accent rests. 2. Tilde or accent (ortho) graphic: graphic representation of the emphasis with which a syllable is pronounced , necessary in some cases in Spanish. The tilde is not used in English, except in a few words of foreign origin.
Adjective Word that qualifies or determines a noun or pronoun . In Spanish, most adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number . In English the adjectives are invariable: a red pencil ( a red pencil ), a red stain ( a red spot ), red pants ( red pants ), red lights ( red lights ).
Demonstrative adjective Adjective used to identify the person or thing to which we refer:
this boy ( this boy ), these people ( these people ), at around that time ( at that time ), in those days ( at that time ).
Invariable adjective See Adjective
Possessive adjective See Possessive
Adverb Word that modifies a verb , an adjective , another adverb or a prayer : she
Quickly attuned to New York life ( He quickly adapted to New York life ), she gets terribly nervous ( overwrought sets ), we get on quite well together ( we get along pretty well ), frankly , I don’t really care all that much (I really don’t care too much ).
Agent The person or thing that performs the action of the verb :
the earthquake Claimed many lives ( the earthquake claimed many lives ), she was Detained by the Belgian Authorities ( was arrested by the Belgian authorities ). See Active Voice and Passive Voice .
Sharp Word that is accentuated in the last syllable : inform mar , re ve , truck.
Apocope Loss or suppression of one or more sounds at the end of a word: some (some), so ( so much).
Article Word that goes before the noun and indicates whether the referent is already known to us (definite article: the = el, la, los, las ) or not (indefinite article: a / an = un, una ).
Definite article See Article
Indefinite article See Article
Attributive An adjective is an attribute when it expresses a quality (an attribute) of the noun to which it modifies. In English grammar, however, the use of “attributive” implies that the adjective precedes the noun rather than being in the predicate of the sentence . In a
black dress ( a black dress ) the adjective is “attributive”, while in her dress was black ( her dress was black) the adjective is “ predicative ” (appears in the predicate of the sentence , after acopulative verb ). English many nouns are used attributive way, modifying another noun , which precede: age difference ( age difference ), kitchen unit ( kitchen unit ). See predicative .
Augmentative Word formed with a suffix indicating increase: grand ote; cabezo azo; simpl ng
Cardinal A cardinal number expresses a precise amount of elements: nine (nine), forty (forty).
Grammar category or part of the sentence Each of the classes in which the words are grouped according to their syntactic function, such as noun , verb , adjective , etc.
Placed Word that is often used together with others in combinations (placements) that are frequent and typical in a language. In Spanish a clamorous success ( a resounding success ) is a typical placement, the noun success is a frequent placement of the clamorous adjective . In English the adjective resounding usually accompanies nouns as success. The translations usually vary according to the ones with which a word appears: a clamorous success ( a resounding success ), a clamorous ovation ( rapturous / thunderous applause). Placed with direct complement function are in angle brackets: iron  to iron,
to press, iron, etc. and those who act as subjects in double angular brackets: abate to ease up or off, abate> to die down, abate, etc.
Placement See Placed
Comparative Form of an adjective or adverb that expresses more or less in quantity, grade or quality. Better ( better ) is the comparative of good ( good -a ), more / less clearly ( more / less clearly, more / less clearly ) are comparative forms of clearly ( clearly ). In English the adjectives and adverbs of a syllable and some of two syllables form the comparative by adding the suffix -er : cheap ( cheap -a), cheaper ( cheaper-a ), clever ( smart ), cleverer ( smarter ). The longer adjectives and adverbs form the comparative using more : interesting ( interesting ), more interesting ( more interesting ). See Superlative .
Direct complement See Direct Object
Indirect compliment See Indirect Object
Circumstantial complement Complete the meaning of a verb , expressing a circumstance of the action: I bought a book yesterday ( I bought a book yesterday ).
Agreement Morphological correspondence between an adjective and noun which modifies among the form of a verb and the subject of prayer , etc .: JRO pencil
or , the Red pencils you , you spoke as , we spoke masters , etc.
Conditional Verb tense that expresses what would happen if a certain condition were met. English is formed with the modal verb would : I
would help you if I Could ( ‘d help if I could ). He also expresses the future in indirect-style sentences : he said he would come on Friday (he said it would come on Friday ). (His textual words were ” I will come on Friday. “).
Conjugation 1. Orderly series of forms taken by a verb to express mode , time , number and person . 2. Each of the three groups of verbs in which they are divided into Spanish, according to the ending of the infinitive : -ar, -er, -ir.
Conjunction Word used to bind other words, phrases or sentences or to introduce a subordinate clause : blue
and white ( blue and white ), by car or by train ( by car or by train ), I would like to go but I do not think I’ll be able to ( I would like to go but I don’t think I can ), can you prove that you were there? ( Can you prove it was there? )
Consonant 1. Sound of the language that is produced by the total or partial contact of two articulatory organs. 2. Any of the letters of the alphabet used to represent that type of sound. See Vocal .
Contraction Union of two words in one. In English, contractions of subject and verbal form are very frequent : I’m = I am , we’ve = we have , etc. Some contractions may correspond to more than one combination of words: he’s is the contraction of he is en he’s above suspicion ( above all suspicion ) and he has en he’s been like a father to me (he has been like a father to me ).
Copulation See copulative verb
Demonstrative See Demonstrative Adjective and Demonstrative Pronoun
Ending Morpheme (letter or group of letters) that is added to the root of the variable words and indicates grammatical features such as the person of the verb , the agreement of the adjective with the noun , etc. In English – (e) s is the third person ‘s detachment from the present singular of most verbs : I play / she play
s , we go / he go es .
Dieresis Spelling sign indicating that the vowel “u” of the syllables “güe” and “güi” must be pronounced : stork; penguin.
Diminutive Word is formed with a suffix indicating smaller, minor or sentimental value: Dog ito ; doctor cillo ; grandma ita
Esdrújula Word that is accentuated in the last to last syllable : traffic, ecstasy.
Direct style The one that consists of narrating what has been said by quoting the speaker’s words verbatim: go away, she said ( –vete –he said ). See Indirect style .
Indirect style The one that consists in narrating what has been said without textually quoting the speaker’s words: she told him to go away ( told him to leave ). See Direct Style .
Female One of the three genres of Spanish grammar. See gender .
Sentence Group of words centered around a nucleus that has a unitary syntactic behavior: an adverbial phrase behaves like an adverb: the house was decorated
in the French manner ( the house was decorated in the French style ), an adjective phrase as an adjective : he likes to have everything neat and tidy ( likes to have everything very well arranged ), etc.
Future continuous Verb tense formed with the modal verb will , the infinitive be and the gerund of the main verb (form ending in –ing ) used to refer to actions that will be occurring at a certain time in the future : I’ll be waiting for you ( I’ll be waiting ). In many contexts this time is equivalent to the simple future in Spanish: he’ll be leaving shortly for Paris ( I’ll be out soon for Paris ), I’ll be seeing him soon ( I’ll see him soon).
Future perfect Verb tense formed with the modal verb will , the infinitive have and the participle of the main verb . It is used to refer to actions that will have occurred before a certain moment in the future : they ‘ll have finished (= will have finished) the bridge by then ( by then they will have finished the bridge ).
Future Verb tense that places the action in a future moment. In English it is formed with the verb modal will : it will be late ( he will arrive late ).
Gender Each of the classes in which nouns , pronouns , articles and adjectives are divided . In Spanish grammar, nouns are feminine ( home, motorcycle, front ) or masculine ( newspaper, actor, bridge ). There are also the pronouns neutral this, that and that and the article neuter it . In English a gender is not attributed to inanimate objects , although sometimes the feminine pronoun she is used to refer to a car, a machine or a country.
Demonym Express the place of origin or nationality: Londoner = Londoner; Spanish = Spanish.
Gerund In Spanish grammar, the gerund is the impersonal form of the verb ending in –ando, –iendo or –iendo, which denotes actions or durations: I still
think that we should have gone ( I still think we ought to have gone ), I was suffering so much ( he was in such pain ), he spends hours reading ( she reads for hours on end ). It can also be used as an adverb: down the hill running ( she ran down the hill ). In English grammar “gerund” is the verbal form ending in –ing when used with nominal function (the noun ): drinking wrecked her health ( drink ruined health ), her love of reading ( his love for reading ).
Serious See Llana
Imperative See Mode
Imperfect In Spanish grammar, verbal time used to refer to unfinished past actions, often in descriptions. It may amount to past continuous or past simple English:
shining sun ( the sun was shining ), had five years ( she was five years old ). It is also used to talk about past or habitual past actions. In these cases it is equivalent to the English modal verb used to : at nine they sent us to bed ( they used to send us to bed at nine o’clock ),If it was sunny salíamo s a walk ( if it was sunny we used to go for a walk) .
Indicative See Mode
Infinitive Non-personal form of the verb whose ending in Spanish is –ar , –er or –ir. In English the infinitive can be used preceded by to, as in it pays
to read the instructions (it is convenient to read the instructions ) or without to, as in she could read music when she was four ( at four she already knew how to read music ).
Interjection An invariable word that expresses what the speaker feels, is used to attract someone’s attention, etc .: ow! ( Alas! ), Hey! ( Hey! )
Interrogative Who asks a question: where do you come from? ( Where are you from? ) Is an interrogative sentence , who? ( Who? ) Is an interrogative pronoun , how much? ( How much? ) Is an interrogative adverb . Most verbs English requires the use of the auxiliary to do to form sentences interrogative.
Flat Word that is accentuated in the penultimate syllable : exam, weak.
Locution See Phrase
Male One of the three genres of Spanish grammar. See gender .
Mode Grammar accident that expresses the attitude of the speaker against what is expressed by the verb . The imperative expresses order:
stay here ( stay here ), the indicative expresses facts: he was very young widow ( she was widowed very young When She Was ). In Spanish, the subjunctive expresses, among other things, wishes: I prefer that you stay here ( I’d rather you stayed here ), conditions: if it were cheaper, more people would come ( if it was or Were cheaper, more people would come ), the reaction of the speaker ‘s face a fact: I feel that not be to your liking ( I’m sorry that it’s not to your liking ), hope: I hope you have enjoyed the cruise ( I hope you have enjoyed the crossing ), etc. In English there are only traces of a subjunctive way in uses such as If I were you … ( me than you …, me instead … ) and in formal registration structures with verbs such as ask, command, demand, insist, propose, etc. when these are followed by that :That a doctor insisted she be called ( he insisted that he call a doctor ), I have Demanded That the hostages be released ( demanded that the hostages be released ).
Negative Expressing a disclaimer: I do not want to argue with you ( I will not argue with you ). Most English verbs require the use of auxiliary to do to form negative sentences .
Neutral One of the three genres of Spanish grammar. See gender .
Name See Noun
Own name Name of a person, thing, organization, etc. which is usually capitalized: St Matthew ( San Mateo ), London ( London ), United Nations ( United Nations ).
Numerable See Accounting Noun
Number Grammar accident of some words that expresses whether they refer to a single person or thing ( singular ) or several ( plural ). The word woman ( woman ) is singular, the plural is women ( women ).
Object Word or set of words that designates the person , the animal or the thing on which the action of the verb rests .
Direct object The noun , phrase or nominal pronoun designating the (s) person (s) or thing (s) directly affected by the action of the verb : I’s invited
both of us ( he has invited us both ), some time later I saw them leave ( after a while the saw out ), she plays the classical guitar ( plays classical guitar ). See Indirect Object .
Indirect object The noun , nominal phrase or pronoun that designates the person (s) or thing (s) directly affected by the action of the verb : I wrote
him a letter ( she wrote a letter ), she bought the children some books ( he bought books for the children ). A letter and books are the direct objects of the verbs in the previous examples. See Direct Object .
Sentence A set of words that asserts, asks or orders something and contains a subject and a verb . In written language, in both Spanish and English, the first word of a sentence begins with a capital letter and the sentence ends with a period, a question mark or an exclamation point.
Subordinate prayer Part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb and depends on the main verb : tell me
what needs doing ( tell me what to do ).
Ordinal An ordinal number expresses the position of an element in a series: third ( third –a ), twentieth ( twentieth ). In English, ordinal numbers are used on dates.
Part of the sentence See Grammar Category
Past participle Impersonal form of the verb used in the formation of compound tenses and the passive : I have not
seen all day ( I have not seen him all day ), she was Brought up by her grandmother ( the grandmother raised ). Past participles can also have adjectival function: written warning ( written notice ).
Passive See Passive Voice
Passive reflects See Passive Voice
Past continuous Tense formed by the last of the verb to be and the present participle of the verb principal (finished form in -ing ): she
was waiting at the door ( was waiting at the door ). Sometimes the past continuous is translated by the imperfect Spanish: we were swimming close to the shore (we swam near the shore ).
Past perfect Verb tense formed by the past tense of the verb to have and the participle of the main verb , which has a similar use to that of the Spanish super-perfect (to refer to a past action before another past one): I realized what I
had done ( I realized of what he had done ). It is also used in conditional sentences , when in Spanish we use the super-perfect subjunctive : if I had known , I wouldn’t have come ( if I had known , I would not have come ).
Past simple Tense used to refer to past actions, similarly use the preterite Spanish: we
Took him home ( we took home ), we played cards to pass the time ( played cards to pass the time ). Since there is no time equivalent to the imperfect in English, sometimes the past simple corresponds to the imperfect : he knew she’d be furious (he knew he was going to be furious ). It is also used in sentences conditional, in Spanish when we use the imperfect of subjunctive : even if I Knew, I would not tell you ( even if I did, I would not tell ).
Person Grammar accident expressed by the three groups of personal pronouns and corresponding verbal disengagements . The first person of the singular ( I, I ) denotes the person who speaks, the first person of the plural ( we , we -as ) to a group that includes the person who speaks. The second person of the singular ( you , you, you ) is used to address the speaker. English makes no difference between family and formal form. There is also no difference between the second person singular and plural and therefore youIt is also equivalent to you and you. The third person of the singular refers to the person or thing of which one speaks ( he / she / it , he / she / it ), and the third person of the plural person to the persons or things of which one speaks ( they , they ).
Phrasal verb Phrase verbal with own meaning consisting of a verb followed by an adverb a preposition or both: to give
up means to leave in I’ve Given up smoking ( I quit smoking ), to put up means stay in we put up three of the students ( stayed three students ), to put up with means hold on it amazes me how you put up with her ( I do not understand how stand it ).
Plural See Number
Possessive Adjective or pronoun that denotes possession or belonging. English possessives are invariable, that is, they do not agree in gender or in number with the thing possessed: my car ( my car ), my friends ( my friends ), hers is blue ( his / hers is blue ), hers are blue ( yours are yours ). See also Possessive Saxon .
Saxon Possessive Way to indicate possession or ownership using ‘(s) : Jack’s car ( the car of Jack ), the people’s choice ( the people’s choice ). When the noun designating the holder ends in s : only the apostrophe is added the girls’ coats ( coats girls ).
Predicate Part of the sentence whose core is a verb , which expresses something about the subject . In the sentence the ball went off at an angle ( the ball went crooked ), ‚ went off at an angle ‘ is the predicate, which makes a statement about the subject ‘ the ball ‘.
Predicative In English grammar, an adjective is “predicative” when it appears in the predicate of the sentence , after a copulative verb such as be, seem, etc .: they are not
comparable (can not be compared ), she seems friendly ( seems sympathetic ) . See Attributive .
Prefix Letter or group of letters that prefix (s) to the root of a word to change its meaning:
im possible ( impossible ), to moral ( amoral ).
Preposition An invariable word used to enter a name or nominal phrase indicating place, position, time or mode . With ( con ), in ( en ) and de ( of ) are prepositions.
Present continuous Verb tense formed by the present tense of the verb to be and the gerund of the main verb (form ending in –ing ) used to refer to actions that are taking place at the moment of speaking: she’s listening to some music ( is listening to music ).
Present Verb tense used to talk about habitual actions: we Usually eat at 7 o’clock ( usually dine at seven ), timeless truths: it lies to the East of the city ( it is east of the city ), etc. The present simple is not used in English to refer to actions that are happening in the present moment. In these cases the present continuous is used : does it rain? ( is it raining? ).
Present perfect Verb tense formed by the present of the verb to have and the participle of the main verb , used to refer to past actions finished but linked to the moment in which it is spoken: I ‘
ve already seen the play ( I have already seen the work ), I haven ‘t seen him all afternoon ( I haven’t seen him all afternoon ). In constructions with the adverb just is equivalent to ‘finish of’ in Spanish: his letters have just been published (its epistolary has just been published ).
Past imperfect See Imperfect
Past Indefinite Tense presented as a past completed action: the other day
I saw ( I saw her the other day ). Its use corresponds in many cases to the use of past simple in English.
Perfect tense Tense presenting a past action as finished but linked to the moment it is spoken: this year
has missed a class ten times ( esta year he’s missed ten classes ), today no me has favored fortunate ( luck has not Been on my side today ). Its use corresponds in many cases to the use of the present perfect in English.
Past perfect Verb tense used to refer to an earlier past action also another past action: pretended not I
had seen ( I pretended I HAD not seen me ). It usually corresponds to the use of past perfect in English.
Pronoun Word that replaces a noun or a nominal phrase . See also demonstrative pronoun , Personal Pronouns , etc.
Demonstrative pronoun Pronoun used to identify the person or thing to which we refer: this is my sister ( this is my sister ) That one is yours ( this is yours ), Those Were difficult times ( those were difficult times ).
Personal pronoun Word denoting a specific person or thing. Subject pronouns are those cited under Person . The object pronouns that correspond to them are me , you, him, her, it, us, you and them .
Possessive pronoun See Possessive
Reflexive pronoun It is the one that represents the subject and is part of a pronominal verb : me / te / se / nos / os / se .
Relative pronoun Pronoun that introduces a subordinate sentence that adds information about someone or something mentioned in the main sentence . The relative pronoun can be omitted in English in many contexts: the way (
that ) he spoke ( the way he spoke ); the cousin (Whom) I Mentioned Earlier ( cousin whom I mentioned earlier ), the parcel Which arrived This Morning ( the package that arrived this morning ), the house Where she was born ( the city where he was born ).
Root Base form of a word, to which endings , prefixes or suffixes are added : writ- is the root of the writes, writing and written forms .
Syllable Sound or set of sounds that includes a vowel and is pronounced with a single voice broadcast. The pronunciation of the English word sure consists of a single syllable.
Singular See Number
Overdrive Word that is accentuated in a syllable before the last to last one: return it to me .
Subjunctive See mode .
Suffix Group of letters postponed to the root of a word to form another word: -ly added to the adjective quick (quick) to form the adverb quickly ( quickly ), -ness is added to the noun sad ( sad ) to form sadness ( sadness ) , etc.
Augmentative Suffixes Suffixes -on , azo , -ote and -udo , sometimes they indicate large but can also express a pejorative or admiring attitude (as in the case of simpleton or cochazo ) or part of words with the meaning of “blow killed with something ”(like paraguazo , elbow , etc). They do not exist in English.
Diminutive suffixes Suffixes such as –ito and –illo, which sometimes indicate small size but can also express affection (such as –ito in poorly or Danielito) , soften a word (such as –ita in chubby ), etc. They do not exist in English.
Subject The noun , nominal phrase or pronoun that denotes the person (s) or thing (s) performing the verb action :
rain stopped play ( the rain interrupted the game ), his attitude drove her to despair ( his attitude hopeless ), she was appointed director ( he was named director ). The subject is never omitted in English.
Superlative The form of an adjective or adverb that expresses the maximum degree of a quality or circumstance. The worst ( worst, worst, etc.) is the superlative of bad ( bad -a ), the most / least interesting ( the least / most interesting, the least / most interesting, etc.) are superlative forms of interesting ( interesting ) In English the adjectives and adverbs of a syllable and some of two syllables form the superlative by adding the suffix –est : cheap ( cheap-a), the cheapest (the cheapest, the cheapest, etc.), clever ( smart ), the cleverer ( the smartest, the smartest, etc.). The longest adjectives and adverbs form the superlative using most : interesting ( interesting ), the most interesting ( the most interesting, the most interesting, etc.) See Comparative
Noun Name that designates a person , a place, an object , an animal, a quality or an activity and can function as a subject : dentist ( dentist ), park ( park ), glass ( glass, cup, glass ), duck ( duck ) , intelligence ( intelligence ), surfing ( surfing ). See also Own name .
Collective noun Noun in a singular way that expresses a set of beings or individual things: royalty ( royalty ), team ( team ).
Compound noun Noun formed by two or more words, cosmetic surgery ( cosmetic surgery ), zero ( ground zero ).
Accounting or countable noun Noun that designates something that may be preceded by the indefinite article or a numeral and has a plural form : a ship ( a ship ) , three apples ( three apples ). Some nouns are countable in Spanish and countless English: furniture ( a piece of furniture ), advice ( a piece of advice ). See Countless or mass noun .
Countless or mass noun Noun that cannot be preceded by the indefinite article or a numeral and has no plural form : money ( money ) , air ( air ). See Accounting Noun .
Invariable noun Noun that has the same form in the singular and in the plural . Sheep ( sheep ) is an invariable noun in English: to count sheep ( counting sheep ). Crisis ( Crisis is an invariable noun in Spanish: one of the worst crises ever known the country ( one of the worst crises the country has Known ).
Termination See Detachment
Compound time In Spanish grammar, tense formed by the auxiliary verb have and the participle of the verb principal: not
have / had arrived ( They have not / had not arrived ).
Verbal tense Each of the verbal forms that can be used to express the moment in which the action occurs (in the present , the past or the future ) with respect to the moment in which it is spoken or to another action. In she
was talking to herself ( talking to herself ) the past continuous is used to describe something that was happening at some point in the past. In by the time he arrived, most of the others had left ( when he arrived, almost everyone else had left ) the super perfect is used to talk about an action that had already happened when something else happened ( when it arrived). But tenses are sometimes used to express nuances that are not temporary. In Spanish we often use the future to express conjectures or assumptions: it will be about 35 years old or out there ( he must be 35 or so, he must be around 35 ).
Accent mark See Accent
Verb Word or group of words that expresses an action: to pick up ( pick up , etc.), an event: to happen (to happen, to happen ) or a state: to exist (to exist ).
Auxiliary verb In English grammar, the verb to do , which is used in the formation of negative and interrogative , to be , used to form continuous tenses and to have , used to form perfect tenses .
Verb with particle (s) See Phrasal Verb
Copulative verb Verb (such as be = be, be, seem = seem , etc.) that joins the subject with the word or words that describe it: he was very abrupt (she was very abrupt ), she seemed very willing to help ( seemed very willing to help ).
Impersonal verb In English grammar, a verb that carries it or there as a subject : it’s raining (it is raining ), there appears to be some misunderstanding (it would seem that there is a misunderstanding ).
Intransitive verb Verb that has no direct object : to agree is intransitive in I quite agree ( I say the same ). See transitive verb
Irregular verb Verb that presents variations with respect to regular conjugation . To sing is an irregular verb in English (its past is sang and its participle is sung ). See regular verb .
Modal verb In English grammar, verb used with another verb to express possibility, permission, will, fancy, etc., as can, may, will, must, etc .: I can not eat ( you can not eat ), may I smoke? ( Can I smoke? ), Will you do me in favor? ( Do me a favor?) , It must be worth a fortune ( must be worth a fortune ).
Pronominal verb In Spanish grammar, a verb that is constructed with an unstressed pronoun that matches the subject and does not perform any syntactic function: falling ( to fall ), showering ( to have a shower ), insolent ( to become insolent ), etc. They are translated into English in different ways.
Reflexive verb Type of pronominal verb in which the subject and object designate the same person or thing: comb ( to comb one’s hair ), put on ( to put one’s shoes on ), wash ( to have a wash ). They are translated into English in different ways. In some cases they are equivalent to the English reflexive construction with the pronouns myself , yourself , etc .: it was covered with a towel ( he covered himself with a towel ), take care! ( look after yourself! ).
Regular verb Verb that conforms to rules established in its conjugation and does not present irregularities. In English, regular verbs form the past and the participle by adding –ed : play, placed, placed. See irregular verb .
Transitive verb Verb that carries a direct object : to agree is transitive in they all agreed it was too late ( everyone agreed that it was too late ). ‘That it was too late’ is the direct object of the verb. See intransitive verb .
Vocal 1. Sound of the language produced with the mouth open and without any obstacle to the expulsion of the air . 2. Letter that represents this type of sound, in many languages a , e , i , o and u . See Consonant .
Active voice In the active voice the subject of the verb designates the agent of the verbal action:
the war interrupted Their education ( war interrupted his studies ). See passive voice .
Passive voice In the passive voice the subject of the verb designates the object of the verbal action:
their education was interrupted by the war ( their studies were interrupted by war ). The passive voice is more frequent in English than in Spanish and the translation of the previous example would sound more natural in the active voice. The Spanish used often a verb in the third person of the plural or passive reflects (with it ‘) to translate a sentence English passive voice: the baby was found abandoned ( they found the abandoned baby )it was published under a different title ( published with another title ). In English the indirect object of a verb can also become the subject of the passive sentence : he was told that … ( they told him that … ), they were given a severe warning ( they were given a serious warning ).

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